The 6,000-Hour Learning Gap
By the time they reach 6th grade, middle class kids have likely spent 6,000 more hours learning than kids born into poverty. Sounds like a big gap? In this video, check our math.
The following studies describe the amount of time average students spend in enriching learning opportunities and/or the learning time access gap for low-income students.
- Afterschool Alliance (2013), 21st century community learning centers, http://afterschoolalliance.org/21st%20CCLC%20Fact%20Sheet_08_23_2013.pdf
- Balfanz, R. (2009) Putting Middle Grades Students on the Graduation Path. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.
- Barnett and Nores (2012), Estimated participation and hours in early care and education by type of arrangement and income at ages 2 to 4 in 2010 , http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/ECE%20Participation%20Estimations.pdf;
- Barnett, et al., (2012), The state of pre-school 2012, http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/yearbook2012_executivesummary.pdf
- Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2012), Economic news release, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.t09.htm
- Coley, R.J. (2002) An uneven start: Indicators of inequality in school readiness. Princeton: Educational Testing Service. NJ.
- Gutiérrez , K. D., Izquierdo, C., & Kremer-Sadlik, T. (2010). Middle class working families’ beliefs and engagement in children’s extra-curricular activities: The social organization of children’s futures. The International Journal of Learning, 17(3), 633-656.
- Hofferth and Sandberg, (2000), An uneven start: Indicators of inequality in school readiness, http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr00-458.pdf
- Institute of Museum and Library Services, (2008), Public library report, http://interconnectionsreport.org/reports/PublicLibraryReport030308.pdf
- McLaughlin & Pitcock, (2009), http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/summer-and-extended-learning-time/summer-learning/Documents/Building-Quality-in-Summer-Learning-Programs.pdf
- Meyer, D., Princiotta, D., & Lanahan, L. (2004). The Summer After Kindergarten: Children’s Activities and Library Use by Socioeconomic Status. (NCES 2004-037). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
- PBS Frontline, (2012), http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/education/dropout-nation/middle-school-moment/
- Wimer, et al. (2002), What are kids getting into these days?: Demographic differences in youth out-of school time participation, http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pss/tables/table_2004_06.asp
- Wimer, Christopher, Bouffard, S.M., Caronongan, P., Dearing, E., Simpkins, S., Little, P., & Weiss, H. (2006). What are kids getting into these days?: Demographic differences in youth out-of school time participation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.